Layla – Derek and The Dominoes
In the mid-sixties George Harrison struck up a close friendship with English guitar legend Eric Clapton. The two spent a lot of time together outside the studio when Harrison was not recording with The Beatles and Clapton was having time out from supergroup Cream. They wrote a few songs together only one of which was recorded. ‘Badge’ – credited to Harrison and Clapton appeared on Cream’s final album ‘Goodbye’ released in 1969. Released as a single the song went to number 18 on the UK charts. During this time Harrison and his wife Patti spent a few weeks living at Clapton’s country mansion while their new home was being renovated. It was in Clapton’s backyard one morning that Harrison wrote his classic song ‘Here Comes The Sun’. Harrison was also keen for Clapton to play lead guitar during the recording of his epic song ‘While My Guitar Gently Weeps’ on the Beatles so called ‘White Album’. Clapton was initially reluctant citing the fact that only the members of The Beatles played on their albums. Harrison’s reply was “fuck them, it’s my song”. Clapton eventually played on the track but was uncredited on the album sleeve. The more time the Harrisons spent with Clapton the more he became obsessed with Patti. In late 1969 Clapton confessed to Patti that he was in love her. Patti was flattered but turned Clapton’s request for her to leave Harrison down. A year later Clapton was still infatuated with Patti when he wrote the epic song ‘Layla’ which appeared on the album ‘Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs’ released in November 1970 and credited to Clapton’s new band ‘Derek and The Dominoes’. The band was made up of a series of top session musicians and included Duane Allman playing slide guitar on the title track. The bulk of the song’s lyrics referenced unrequited love from ‘Layla’ to the singer. There was little doubt that the ‘Layla’ character in the song was Patti Harrison. Although the album as a whole was not received well initially , ‘Layla’ was a top ten hit in both the US and UK charts. The song was re-released as a single in 1993 taken from Clapton’s ‘Unplugged’ album and was awarded a Grammy in the same year. In 2004 Rolling Stone magazine ranked the original version of Layla as the 27th greatest rock song from their list of 500 greatest rock songs of all time.
Footnote: George and Pattie Harrison separated in 1975, divorced in 1977 and in 1979 Patti and Eric Clapton married in 1979. Their marriage lasted 10 years.
How Do You Sleep – John Lennon
This song which appeared on John Lennon’s “Imagine” album (released 1971) marked the lowest point in the disintegrating relationship between John Lennon and Paul McCartney which had begun to unravel in the final years of The Beatles. As early as the death of manager Brian Epstein (August 1967) tensions arose within the band as to who would take Epstein’s role. McCartney wanted future father-in-law Lee Eastman while the other three Beatles plumped for businessman Allan Klein. McCartney lost out and according to Lennon “sulked for two years” before ending the group by taking Harrison, Starr and Lennon to London’s High Court of Justice. According to Lennon the song was in response to a number to a number of slights he perceived against himself and wife Yoko Ono on McCartney’s album ‘Ram’. Lennon’s response was brutal. The lyrics on the song were a fairly blatant shot at how little Lennon regarded McCartney’s music (‘the only thing you done was yesterday’) and (‘the sound you make is muzak to my ears’) are two examples of this. George Harrison , still upset at McCartney himself, accepted Lennon’s offer to play slide guitar on the song. Ringo Starr turned up to the session as well but was reportedly upset at the viciousness of the song and told Lennon he’d gone too far. The rock press were generally disappointed with the attack on McCartney. Ben Gerson, writing for Rolling Stone magazine, commented that the song was “horrible and indefensible” and “lay waste to McCartney’s character, family and career”. However, Roy Hollingworth, writing in ‘Melody Maker’ stated the song was one of the best tracks on the album and applauded Lennon for his honesty. By the mid-seventies McCartney and Lennon had repaired their fractured relationship and Lennon admitted the song was probably ‘a bit harsh’. Many rock critics have surmised that McCartney finally responded to ‘How Do You Sleep’ with his track ‘Let Me Roll It’ off the ‘Band On The Run’ album although McCartney has never spoken about it.
Hey Jude – The Beatles
Although ‘Hey Jude’ is credited to Lennon-McCartney the song was written entirely by McCartney which he started while driving over to visit Lennon’s recently divorced first wife Cynthia and son Julian. As McCartney is quoted as saying ” I went over to see them because I wanted to let them know just because John was out of their life I wasn’t going to ignore them. After all, I’d been friends with Cyn for 10 years and had known Julian all his life”. Indeed it can be argued McCartney was sometimes more of a father figure to Julian than Lennon. McCartney knew how to play with children whereas Lennon was not a ‘natural’ parent – not at that stage anyhow. The song was intended to comfort Julian about his parents separation. Originally called ‘Hey Jules’, McCartney changed it to ‘Hey Jude’ because he thought it sounded better. When McCartney had nearly completed the song he nervously took it over to play for Lennon. He was worried Lennon would see it as a shot at Yoko Ono. Lennon loved the song but McCartney said he would change the line “the movement you need is on your shoulder” because he thought it didn’t make sense. Lennon’s reply was “you won’t change it, it’s the best line in it”. After a number of recordings the version The Beatles liked the best went for seven minutes. Producer George Martin, who wanted to release the song as a single protested under the grounds that radio stations wouldn’t play a song that long. Lennon replied “They will because it is us !”. Lennon was right and Hey Jude became The Beatles biggest selling single and held the number position on the UK charts for 12 weeks and the USA for 9 weeks. It also went number one in Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Canada and Japan. Rolling Stone magazine ranked Hey Jude the eight greatest song in the history of rock and roll music.
Tonight’s The Night – Neil Young
After Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young went their separate ways at the end of 1971 they all settled down to record solo albums with the intent on starting solo careers. All of them made solid albums but it was Neil Young’s ‘Harvest’ that proved he was probably the most talented of the former super group. Released in 1972 ‘Harvest’ went to number 1 in the UK, USA and Australia. Based around mainly acoustic, melodic songs it catapulted Young to international stardom and positioned him as one of the world’s greatest singer – songwriters. His future looked set and fans looked eagerly towards Young’s next offering expecting more of the same. However, two significant events drastically changed Young’s mind-set, the deaths of his back up band Crazy Horse guitarist Danny Whitten (November 1972) and long time friend and roadie Bruce Berry (June 1973) both from heroin overdoses. Young was greatly affected by the loss of his two friends and his music changed as a result. His 1974 follow up album to Harvest, “On The Beach” showed Young had lost some of his former wit and replaced it was angst but it was the 1975 offering “Tonight’s The Night” that saw Young descend into the culmination of his period of mourning for Whitten and Berry. It was a demanding, uncompromising album which documented the rock wastelands of the 70’s in a extremely harrowing style, and at no point did it make any concessions to commercial appeal. The tital track was particularly chilling as it name checked Berry and the events of his death (“Bruce Berry was a working man/he used to load that Econoline van/a sparkle was in his eyes/but his life was in his hands”) and later (“cause people let me tell you/it put a chill up and down my spine/when I picked up the telephone/and heard that he died out on the mainline”). The album was dedicated to Whitten and Berry. The album sleeve featured a picture of Crazy Horse with an empty space where Whitten should have been. The tour following the album was bizarre with “Tonight’s The Night” being played up to two or three times a night with each rendition even more chilling than the one before. Young’s commercial standing suffered through this period with Tonight’s The Night selling 50% less albums than Harvest. By the time 1977 arrived Young seemed much more a ease in his personal life and returned to commercial success with the “Comes A Time” album which saw him return to his more acoustic, gentler routes.
American Pie – Don McLean
Don McLean started writing this song in 1969 and it was eventually released on his debut album “American Pie” in 1971. The year 1969 represented the 10th anniversary of the death of Buddy Holly, Richie Havens and J.P ‘The Big Bopper” Richardson all of whom perished together in a plane crash in Iowa on February 3rd, 1959. Holly, a huge star in America was only 22 years old while Havens was just 17. Because of the lyrics of McLean’s song this event has now become known has “the day the music died”. (“I can’t remember if I cried/the day the music died”). The song also references many events in the sixties with McLean commenting on musicians such as Elvis Presley, Bob Dylan, The Beatles , The Rolling Stones and The Byrds. He also sings about events such as the assassination of civil rights activists, the Charles Manson murders and the murder of a patron at a Rolling Stones fan at the hands of the Hells Angels. Unlike the plane crash , the lyrics of which are straight forward to decipher it took years for McLean to explain the rest of the song so music critics tried to do it for him. McLean was a 13 year old school boy delivering newspapers when he read about Holly’s death (‘But February made me shiver/with every paper I delivered’). Ten years later when McLean wrote the song he claims he was still trying to exorcise the grief he had felt when he first heard about Holly’s death. Holly was McLean’s childhood hero and the album ‘American Pie’ is dedicated to him. The most McLean has ever said about the song is that in his mind the death of Holly ended the innocence of America and that life in the sixties became much more sinister with political assassinations, civil rights riots and music that exalted in the “counter-culture” of America promoting free love and use of mind altering drugs, all of which McLean was against. American Pie went to number one in the US, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and number two in the UK. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) ranked the song the 5th most significant song in the twentieth century.
Sweet Home Alabama- Lynyrd Skynryd
“Sweet Home Alabama” was written primarily as a response to two songs by Neil Young, “Southern Man” and “Alabama”, which dealt with themes of racism and slavery in the American South. The song appeared on Skynyrd’s album “Second Helping” released in 1974. Young is name-checked in the song in the opening verse (“Well, I heard Mr Young talk about her/well I heard ol’ Neil put her down/well I hope Neil Young will remember/ A Southern Man don’t need him around anyhow’). The rest of the song goes on too glorify all things south and has a shot at events in the North of the country. In one verse Skynyrd laud the merits of the former Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, a noted supporter of segregation. They also have a reference to the Watergate scandal. According to songwriter Ronnie Van Zandt, the reason behind bringing up Watergate was to show the band were talking for the entire southern population , saying to Notherners ‘we are not judging you as ordinary citizens for the failures of your leaders in Watergate, don’t judge all of us as ordinary individuals for the racial problems of the south”. The song was to be Lynyrd Skynyrd’s first hit single going to number eight of the US billboard charts. It took Neil Young two years to address his role in the song. In an interview he stated “My song Alabama richly deserved the shot Lynyrd Skynyrd gave me with their great record. I don’t like my words when I listen to it. They are accusatory and condescending , not fully thought out, and to easy to misconstrue”. Young and Van Zant patched up there differences and became good friends. Unfortunately a plane crash in 1977 killed Van Zant and two other members of the band. Young dedicated his song “Walk On” to Van Zant.
Fire and Rain – James Taylor
“Fire and Rain” is one of the most harrowing songs to make a impact on the American charts. It appears on Taylor’s second album “Sweet Baby James” released in 1970. The song chronicles a series of devastating events that Taylor faced when he moved from his native North Carolina to New York to pursue a career in the music industry. It was there that he was noticed playing folk music in various New York coffee clubs. He was invited to join ‘The Flying Machine’ , a loosely arranged group of fellow folk singers and the band set out to become the east coasts answer to the LA super group Crosby, Stills and Nash. After a year of endless gigging the group had gotten nowhere and Taylor was physically and emotionally spent. Suffering from serious depression over the episode (as referenced in the lyric (“sweet dreams and flying machines in pieces on the ground”) he voluntarily booked himself into a psychiatric institution. After nine months he discharged himself and went to live in London with girlfriend Suzanne Schnerr. He auditioned for several companies and was eventually signed by Peter Asher , brother of Paul McCartney’s girlfriend Jane Asher and ended up as the first act signed by the Beatles embryionic record company Apple records. His girlfriend headed back to New York while Taylor cut his debut album “James Taylor” released in 1968. While Taylor was recording the album his girlfriend, who had also battled depression like Taylor, took her own life after her family committed her to a mental aslyum. His manager and his friends kept this information from Taylor while he completed the album, fearing it would severely affect his chances of succeeding while he was completing his “big break”. After the last session was completed Asher informed him of the tragedy which led to the songs opening lyrics “Just yesterday morning they let me know you were gone/Suzanne the plans they made put an end to you”. When Taylor returned to New York he had developed drug problems , particularly with heroin. He slipped back into deep depression and once again admitted himself into a psychiatric clinic. It was this experience in hospital that bought about the lyrics to the chorus of the song (“I’ve seen fire and I’ve seen rain/I’ve seen sunny days that I thought would never end/I’ve seen lonely days where I could not find a friend/but I always thought that I’d see you again”). When ‘Sweet Baby James” was released his manager was keen to release ‘Fire and Rain” as the first single but Taylor protested saying he thought it was too personal to be a mainstream hit. However, the song peaked at number 3 on the American billboard charts and to this day remains possibly the most well known song in James Taylor’s long career.